Petition Project - Global Warming Petition Project. Letter from Frederick Seitz. Research Review of Global Warming Evidence. Enclosed is a twelve-page review of information on the subject of 'global warming,' a petition in. Author links open the overlay panel. Numbers correspond to the affiliation list which can be exposed by using the show more link. Sheet1 throw-down blues, the (phil napoleon) thumpin' & bumpin' teddy ralph tiger rag time on my hands tip toe thru the tulips george j. trinkaus dancer jim lally danke schoen bert kaempfert dardanella (piano solo) big boy. Information coded biofeedback. Information coded biofeedback is an evolving form and methodology in the field of biofeedback. Its uses may be applied in the areas of health, wellness and awareness. Biofeedback has its modern.
Biofeedback - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Biofeedback is the process of gaining greater awareness of many physiological functions primarily using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will. Some of the processes that can be controlled include brainwaves, muscle tone, skin conductance, heart rate and pain perception.Biofeedback may be used to improve health, performance, and the physiological changes that often occur in conjunction with changes to thoughts, emotions, and behavior.
1 Department of Biological Sciences and J.P. Scott Center for Neuroscience, Mind & Behavior, Bowling Green State University, Life Science Building, Bowling Green, OH, 43403, USA.
Eventually, these changes may be maintained without the use of extra equipment, for no equipment is necessarily required to practice biofeedback.Biofeedback has been found to be effective for the treatment of headaches and migraines.DefinitionThree professional biofeedback organizations, the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB), Biofeedback Certification International Alliance (BCIA), and the International Society for Neurofeedback and Research (ISNR), arrived at a consensus definition of biofeedback in 2. Precise instruments measure physiological activity such as brainwaves, heart function, breathing, muscle activity, and skin temperature. These instruments rapidly and accurately 'feed back' information to the user. The presentation of this informationâ€”often in conjunction with changes in thinking, emotions, and behaviorâ€”supports desired physiological changes. Over time, these changes can endure without continued use of an instrument.â€Information coded biofeedbackInformation coded biofeedback is an evolving form and methodology in the field of biofeedback.
Its uses may be applied in the areas of health, wellness and awareness. Biofeedback has its modern conventional roots in the early 1. Over the years, biofeedback as a discipline and a technology has continued to mature and express new versions of the method with novel interpretations in areas utilizing the electromyograph, electrodermograph, electroencephalograph and electrocardiogram among others. The concept of biofeedback is based on the fact that a wide variety of ongoing intrinsic natural functions of the organism occur at a level of awareness generally called the "unconscious". The biofeedback process is designed to interface with select aspects of these "unconscious" processes. The definition reads: Biofeedback is a process that enables an individual to learn how to change physiological activity for the purposes of improving health and performance. Precise instruments measure physiological activity such as brainwaves, heart function, breathing, muscle activity, and skin temperature. These instruments rapidly and accurately feed back information to the user.
The presentation of this informationâ€”often in conjunction with changes in thinking, emotions, and behaviorâ€”supports desired physiological changes. Over time, these changes can endure without continued use of an instrument.A more simple definition could be: Biofeedback is the process of gaining greater awareness of many physiological functions primarily using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will. (Emphasis added by author.)In both of these definitions, a cardinal feature of the concept is the association of the "will" with the result of a new cognitive "learning" skill. Some examine this concept and do not necessarily ascribe it simply to a willful acquisition of a new learned skill but also extend the dynamics into the realms of a behavioristic conditioning[1. Behaviorism contends that it is possible to change the actions and functions of an organism by exposing it to a number of conditions or influences. Key to the concept is not only that the functions are unconscious but that conditioning processes themselves may be unconscious to the organism.[1. Information coded biofeedback relies primarily on the behavior conditioning aspect of biofeedback in promoting significant changes in the functioning of the organism. The principle of "information" is both complex and, in part, controversial.
The term itself is derived from the Latin verb informare which means literally "to bring into form or shape". The meaning of "information" is largely affected by the context of usage. Probably the simplest and perhaps most insightful definition of "information" was given by Gregory Batesonâ€”"Information is news of change" or another as "the difference that makes a difference".[1.
Information may also be thought of as "any type of pattern that influences the formation or transformation of other patterns".[1. Recognizing the inherent complexity of an organism, information coded biofeedback applies algorithmic calculations in a stochastic approach to identify significant probabilities in a limited set of possibilities.
Sensor modalitiesElectromyographAn electromyograph (EMG) uses surface electrodes to detect muscle action potentials from underlying skeletal muscles that initiate muscle contraction. Clinicians record the surface electromyogram (SEMG) using one or more active electrodes that are placed over a target muscle and a reference electrode that is placed within six inches of either active. The SEMG is measured in microvolts (millionths of a volt).[1. In addition to surface electrodes, clinicians may also insert wires or needles intramuscularly to record an EMG signal. While this is more painful and often costly, the signal is more reliable since surface electrodes pick up cross talk from nearby muscles. The use of surface electrodes is also limited to superficial muscles, making the intramuscular approach beneficial to access signals from deeper muscles. The electrical activity picked up by the electrodes is recorded and displayed in the same fashion as the surface electrodes.[1.
Prior to placing surface electrodes, the skin is normally shaved, cleaned and exfoliated to get the best signal. Raw EMG signals resemble noise (electrical signal not coming from the muscle of interest) and the voltage fluctuates, therefore they are processed normally in three ways: rectification, filtering, and integration. This processing allows for a unified signal that is then able to be compared to other signals using the same processing techniques.
Biofeedback therapists use EMG biofeedback when treating anxiety and worry, chronic pain, computer- related disorder, essential hypertension, headache (migraine, mixed headache, and tension- type headache), low back pain, physical rehabilitation (cerebral palsy, incomplete spinal cord lesions, and stroke), temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD), torticollis, and fecal incontinence, urinary incontinence, and pelvic pain.[2. Physical therapists have also used EMG biofeedback for evaluating muscle activation and providing feedback for their patients.[1. Feedback thermometerA feedback thermometer detects skin temperature with a thermistor (a temperature- sensitive resistor) that is usually attached to a finger or toe and measured in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. Skin temperature mainly reflects arteriole diameter.
Hand- warming and hand- cooling are produced by separate mechanisms, and their regulation involves different skills.[2. Hand- warming involves arteriole vasodilation produced by a beta- 2 adrenergic hormonal mechanism.[2. Hand- cooling involves arteriole vasoconstriction produced by the increased firing of sympathetic. C- fibers.[2. 4]Biofeedback therapists use temperature biofeedback when treating chronic pain, edema, headache (migraine and tension- type headache), essential hypertension, Raynaud's disease, anxiety, and stress.[2. ElectrodermographAn electrodermograph (EDG) measures skin electrical activity directly (skin conductance and skin potential) and indirectly (skin resistance) using electrodes placed over the digits or hand and wrist.
Orienting responses to unexpected stimuli, arousal and worry, and cognitive activity can increase eccrine sweat gland activity, increasing the conductivity of the skin for electric current.[2. In skin conductance, an electrodermograph imposes an imperceptible current across the skin and measures how easily it travels through the skin. When anxiety raises the level of sweat in a sweat duct, conductance increases. Skin conductance is measured in microsiemens (millionths of a siemens). In skin potential, a therapist places an active electrode over an active site (e. Skin potential is the voltage that develops between eccrine sweat glands and internal tissues and is measured in millivolts (thousandths of a volt). In skin resistance, also called galvanic skin response (GSR), an electrodermograph imposes a current across the skin and measures the amount of opposition it encounters.
Skin resistance is measured in kÎ© (thousands of ohms).[2. Biofeedback therapists use electrodermal biofeedback when treating anxiety disorders, hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), and stress.[2. Electrodermal biofeedback is used as an adjunct to psychotherapy to increase client awareness of their emotions.[2.
In addition, electrodermal measures have long served as one of the central tools in polygraphy (lie detection) because they reflect changes in anxiety or emotional activation.[2. ElectroencephalographAn electroencephalograph (EEG) measures the electrical activation of the brain from scalp sites located over the human cortex. The EEG shows the amplitude of electrical activity at each cortical site, the amplitude and relative power of various wave forms at each site, and the degree to which each cortical site fires in conjunction with other cortical sites (coherence and symmetry).[3. The EEG uses precious metal electrodes to detect a voltage between at least two electrodes located on the scalp.